Hamearis lucina (Linnaeus, 1758)


Hamearis lucina: Female (eastern Swabian Alb, S-Germany, Dischingen, June 2013) [N] Hamearis lucina: Female (eastern Swabian Alb, S-Germany, Dischingen, June 2013) [N] Hamearis lucina: Male (eastern Swabian Alb, late May 2013) [N] Hamearis lucina: Male (eastern Swabian Alb, Dischingen, June 2013) [N] Hamearis lucina: Female [S] Hamearis lucina: Adult (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, May 2012) [N] Hamearis lucina: Adult (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, late May 2012) [N] Hamearis lucina: Adult (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, late May 2012) [N] Hamearis lucina: Adult (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, late May 2012) [N] Hamearis lucina: Male [N] Hamearis lucina: Adult [N] Hamearis lucina: Lower side [S] Hamearis lucina: Adult (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, clearing with Coenonympha hero, May 2009) [N] Hamearis lucina: Lower side [N] Hamearis lucina: Ovae at Lysimachia nummularium (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, early June 2009) [M] Hamearis lucina: Ovae [M] Hamearis lucina: Ovum [M] Hamearis lucina: Emerged. empty ovum and the L1-larva [S] Hamearis lucina: Young larva [S] Hamearis lucina: Half-grown larva near of a moult  [S] Hamearis lucina: Larva in penultimate instar [S] Hamearis lucina: Larva [S] Hamearis lucina: Larva [S] Hamearis lucina: Larva [S] Hamearis lucina: Pupa [S] Hamearis lucina: Pupa Hamearis lucina: Habitat on the eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany: humid clearing with much Lysimachia nummularium [N] Hamearis lucina: Habitat: nutrient-poor grassland with Primula veris (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany) [N]

Host plants:
The larva feeds on Primula species (mainly Primula veris and P. elatior) and Lysimachia (Lysimachia nummularium, eastern Swabian Alb, 2009 repeatedly observed oviposition).

Habitat:
Hamearis lucina colonizes clear, fringe-rich forest structures, coppices, bushy grasslands, embankments with grasslands, wide edges of hedges and more humid clearcuttings and clearings in the forest.

Life cycle:
Hamearis lucina hibernates as a pupa and flies in the spring from April to June. Eggs are laid on the underside of leaves (rarely also top side) and are quite conspicuous.

Endangerment: endangered

Endangerment factors:
In many places, Hamearis lucina is in sharp decline by darkening processes in forests, intense removing of buses on grasslands and the uniformization of the landscape (removal of hedges etc.). However, locally Hamearis lucina is still quite common, e.g. in the Swabian Alb or in coppice woodland in northern Bavaria.

Remarks:
Hamearis lucina is distributed from the north of the Iberian Peninsula across Southern and Central Europe to the Urals.


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