Spialia orbifer (Hübner, 1823)


Spialia orbifer: Upper side [N] Spialia orbifer: Male (Northern Greece, May 2010) [N] Spialia orbifer: Male (Askion, May 2010) [N] Spialia orbifer: Lower side [N] Spialia orbifer: Lower side (N-Greece, May 2008) [N] Spialia orbifer: Female (Askio mountains, Northern Greece, May 2010) [N] Spialia orbifer: Female [N] Spialia orbifer: Female [N] Spialia orbifer: Female portrait [N] Spialia orbifer: Mating (Askio mountains, Northern Greece, May 2011) [N] Spialia orbifer: Ovum [N] Spialia orbifer: Ovum in inflorescence of Sanguisorba minor (N-Greece, May 2008) [N] Spialia orbifer: L1-larva [S] Spialia orbifer: L3-larva [S] Spialia orbifer: L4-larva (e.o. N-Greece 2008, Litochoro) [S] Spialia orbifer: Larva in last instar [S] Spialia orbifer: Larva in last instar (e.o. Litochoro, N-Greece) [S] Spialia orbifer: Larva in last instar (e.o. N-Greece). Contrary to S. sertorius the yellow flecks are cleary separated. [S] Spialia orbifer: Larva in last instar [S] Spialia orbifer: Pupa [S] Spialia orbifer: Pupa [S] Spialia orbifer: Pupa lateral [S] Spialia orbifer: Habitat: nutrient-poor dry and hot pastures in the Askio mountains (Northern Greece) [N]

Host plants:
The larva feeds on Sanguisorba minor. Eggs are laid on flowers (often in the spring) or sheets (mostly in summer). In Rhodes in September 2013, I observed oviposition on Sarcopoterium spinosum, a small spiny Rosaceae shrub which is common in garrigues.

Habitat:
Spialia orbifer inhabits steppe slopes, embankments, grasslands, rocky areas, dry roadsides and pastures.

Life cycle:
Spialia orbifer flies similar to Spialia sertorius in two generations. The caterpillar overwinters in various instars. I found adults of the second generation in mid-July in Greece, also eggs on the upper leaf surface and a young caterpillar in a shelter at the base of a Sanguisorba rosette. The males sit at blades, etc., and to pursue other butterflies. The first generation flew 2008 on Mount Olympus from sea level to 500m asl already numerous in the first week of May.

Endangerment factors:
Spialia orbifer is still widespread and despite habitat decline not really threatened.

Remarks:
Spialia orbifer is the southeastern sibling of Spialia sertorius and occurs in Europe from southern Poland to Greece. In addition, Spialia orbifer flies from Asia Minor up to Tien Shan.



Spialia phlomidis | Spialia sertorius | Spialia therapne