Thymelicus hyrax (Lederer, 1861)


Thymelicus hyrax: Male (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Male (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Male (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Male (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Male (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Male (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax:  [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Male (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Male (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Male (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Male (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Male (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Male (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Male (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Male (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Male (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Male (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Male (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Male (Greece, Samos Island, Kerkis, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Male (e.p. rearing, Greece, Samos Island, pupa in May 2018) [S] Thymelicus hyrax: Male (e.p. rearing, Greece, Samos Island, pupa in May 2018) [S] Thymelicus hyrax: Male (e.p. rearing, Greece, Samos Island, pupa in May 2018) [S] Thymelicus hyrax: Male (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Male (e.p. rearing, Greece, Samos Island, pupa in May 2018) [S] Thymelicus hyrax: Female (Greece, Samos Island, Kerkis, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Female (Greece, Samos Island, Kerkis, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Female (Greece, Samos Island, Kerkis, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Female (Greece, Samos Island, Kerkis, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Female (e.p. rearing, Greece, Samos Island, pupa in May 2018) [S] Thymelicus hyrax: Female (e.p. rearing, Greece, Samos Island, pupa in May 2018) [S] Thymelicus hyrax: Female (e.p. rearing, Greece, Samos Island, pupa in May 2018) [S] Thymelicus hyrax: Female (e.p. rearing, Greece, Samos Island, pupa in May 2018) [S] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the antepenultimate instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the antepenultimate instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: L3 and L4 larva (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the penultimate instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the penultimate instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the penultimate instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the penultimate instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the penultimate instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the penultimate instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the penultimate instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the penultimate instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the penultimate instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Larva in the last instar (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Comparison of mature larvae: hyrax on top, acteon on the bottom (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [S] Thymelicus hyrax: Pupa (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Pupa (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Pupa (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Pupa (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Pupa (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Pupa (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Pupa (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Pupa (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Pupa (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [M] Thymelicus hyrax: Pupa (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [S] Thymelicus hyrax: Pupa (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [S] Thymelicus hyrax: Pupa (e.l. Greece, Samos Island, larva in April 2019) [S] Thymelicus hyrax: Pupa (e.l. Greece, Samos Island, larva in April 2019) [S] Thymelicus hyrax: Pupa (e.l. Greece, Samos Island, larva in April 2019) [S] Thymelicus hyrax: Pupa (e.l. Greece, Samos Island, larva in April 2019) [S] Thymelicus hyrax: Male pupa prior to eclosion (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [S] Thymelicus hyrax: Female pupa prior to eclosion (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [S] Thymelicus hyrax: L3 larva (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Feeding scars L3 larva (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Feeding scars of a half-grown larva (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Shelter of a L3 larva (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Shelter of a L3 larva (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Shelter of a L3 larva (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Feeding scars of an older larva (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat, pupal shelter (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat, pupal shelter (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat, pupal shelter (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Habitat (Greece, Samos Island, Kerkis, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, Kerkis, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, Kerkis, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Habitat (Greece, Samos Island, Kerkis, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, Kerkis, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, Kerkis, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Habitat (Greece, Samos Island, Vathy, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Habitat (Greece, Samos Island, Vathy, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Habitat (Greece, Samos Island, Vathy, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Habitat (Greece, Samos Island, Vathy, May 2018) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, Kerkis, 700m, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, Kerkis, 300m, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, Kerkis, 300m, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, Kerkis, 300m, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, Kerkis, 300m, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, Manolates, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, Manolates, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, Manolates, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, Vourliotes, April 2019) [N] Thymelicus hyrax: Larval habitat (Greece, Samos Island, Vourliotes, April 2019) [N]

Host plants:
I recorded the larvae only on the grass Achnatherum bromoides on Samos Island.

Habitat:
The host plant usually occurs in stony or rocky environments on limestone, e.g. rocks, garigue, maquis, olive groves, open woodland etc. It is found in both sunny and shady sites from open rocks to the undergrowth of pine woodland. Thymelicus hyrax uses this whole range for reproduction up to total shady places. The adults are mostly seen in hot rocky places.

Life cycle:
I recorded the larvae in mid-April 2019 (half-grown to mature), the pupae (in net-like spun, loose shelters between grass leaves on the outer base of the tussocks) in mid-May 2018. The butterflies occur between May and June, in higher altitudes still in July. They are often seen more singly or in lower numbers. The males tend to perch e.g. at sunny spots on a bushy rocky slope and follow other individuals. The females fly also into very shady sites for oviposition.

Remarks:
Thymelicus hyrax occurs in Asia Minor, Transcaucasia and parts of the Near and Middle East, e.g. Israel, Syria, Lebanon, Iran. In Europe, apart from the Transcaucasian border region in S-Russia, it is only known from Greece, where it occurs on some East Aegean Islands (Samos, Chios, Rhodos, Mytillini, Kastellorizo, Simi) and very local on the mainland where it is only known from the Askion Mountains near Kozani and from the southern slopes of Mount Parnassos, e.g. Delfi and adjacent parts of Sterea Ellada.

Literature:
Wagner, W. (2020): Thymelicus hyrax (Lederer, 1861) a contribution to its larval ecology in Greek Samos Island (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).- Nachr. entomol. Ver. Apollo, N. F. 40 (3/4): 205-208.



Thymelicus acteon | Thymelicus christi | Thymelicus lineola | Thymelicus sylvestris