Gegenes pumilio (Hoffmannsegg, 1804)


Gegenes pumilio: Male (Samos, early May 2009) [N] Gegenes pumilio: Male (Samos) [N] Gegenes pumilio: Female (e.l. Samos 2009) [S] Gegenes pumilio: Female (e.l. Rhodes, Greece, 2013) [S] Gegenes pumilio: Egg (Greece, Rhodes, Kolymbia, September 2013) [N] Gegenes pumilio: Egg (Greece, Rhodes, Kolymbia, September 2013) [N] Gegenes pumilio: Egg after some days (Rhodes, Kolymbia, September 2013) [S] Gegenes pumilio: Egg prior to hatching. On the left side the egg rest of an already hatched larva is visible (Rhodes, Kolymbia, September 2013) [N] Gegenes pumilio: Egg prior to hatching. On the left side the egg rest of an already hatched larva is visible (Rhodes, Kolymbia, September 2013) [N] Gegenes pumilio: Detail of an egg prior to hatching (Rhodes, September 2013) [N] Gegenes pumilio: L1 (e.o. Rhodes 2013) [S] Gegenes pumilio: Young larva in the shelter (Samos, early May 2009) [N] Gegenes pumilio: Young larva in the shelter (Samos, early May 2009) [N] Gegenes pumilio: Half-grown larva [S] Gegenes pumilio: Half-grown larva [S] Gegenes pumilio: Half-grown larva [S] Gegenes pumilio: Larva near the last moult  [S] Gegenes pumilio: Larva [S] Gegenes pumilio: Larva [S] Gegenes pumilio: Larva [S] Gegenes pumilio: Larva (Rhodes, Kolymbia, September 2013) [M] Gegenes pumilio: Larva (Rhodes, Kolymbia, September 2013) [N] Gegenes pumilio: Larva (Rhodes, Kolymbia, September 2013) [N] Gegenes pumilio: Larva (Rhodes, Kolymbia, September 2013) [M] Gegenes pumilio: Larva [S] Gegenes pumilio: Larva (caudal) [S] Gegenes pumilio: Head (e.l. Samos 2009) [S] Gegenes pumilio: Larva (Rhodes, Kolymbia, September 2013) [S] Gegenes pumilio: Pupa [S] Gegenes pumilio: Pupa (e.l. Rhodes 2013) [S] Gegenes pumilio: Pupa (e.l. Rhodes 2013) Gegenes pumilio: Pupa (e.l. Rhodes 2013) [S] Gegenes pumilio: Larval habitat in Samos: young larvae in the tussock [N] Gegenes pumilio: Habitat in Samos near the coast: male at the path and larvae in the embankment, early May 2009 [N] Gegenes pumilio: Larval habitat in Rhodes (Kolymbia) in a small irrigation system (September 2013) [N] Gegenes pumilio: Larval habitat in Rhodes (Kolymbia) in a small irrigation system (September 2013) [N]

Host plants:
The caterpillar lives on drought-resistant grasses that offer passable food even in summer. but in summer also grasses at irrigation ditches and in wetlands are used for oviposition.

Habitat:
Gegenes pumilio inhabits mostly hot, coastal slopes, rocky areas and very extensive olive groves. Less often they are found in the inland up to 1200m above sea level on hot hillsides. It also occurs in human settlements. In Rhodes (Kolymbia) I observed eggs and larvae in small irrigation ditches in the village.

Life cycle:
Gegenes pumilio flies mostly in three generations from April to October. I met young caterpillars and butterflies in the first week of May 2009 in Samos and in September 2013 in Rhodes. The caterpillar overwinters (probably with no real rest) and can be found almost all year round.

Endangerment factors:
Gegenes pumilio is locally threatened due to the extreme tourism-related destruction of coastal areas (overbuilding). Additionally, agricultural intensification can displace populations. But Gegenes pumilio is able to survive under certain circumstances in cultural landscapes and even penetrates human settlements.

Remarks:
Gegenes pumilio is locally present in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean. It is also found locally in Africa and across Southwestern Asia to the Himalayas.



Gegenes nostrodamus