Polyommatus amandus (Schneider, 1792)

Polyommatus amandus: Male [S] Polyommatus amandus: Female [N] Polyommatus amandus: Male [S] Polyommatus amandus: Female [S] Polyommatus amandus: Mating [N] Polyommatus amandus: Ovae on the upper side of a Vicia cracca leaf. Such concentrations are rarely observed. [N] Polyommatus amandus: Ovum [M] Polyommatus amandus: Ovum [M] Polyommatus amandus: L1-larva [S] Polyommatus amandus: L2-larva [S] Polyommatus amandus: L3-larva (hibernationsstadium) [S] Polyommatus amandus: Larva after the last moult (eastern Swabian Alb, May 2008) [M] Polyommatus amandus: Larva [S] Polyommatus amandus: Pupa [S] Polyommatus amandus: Place of larval record: Vicia cracca in a forest edge (May 2008, eastern Swabian Alb) [N] Polyommatus amandus: Habitat in May 2008: larva at the left margin of the aisle [N] Polyommatus amandus: Habitat (eastern Swabian Alb) [N]

Host plants:
The larvae feed especially on Vicia cracca and Vicia tenuifolia, but also Lathyrus pratensis.

Polyommatus amandus is a mesophilic to hygrophile species that is characteristic for margins and fresh fallow land and forb communities near the forest. On the eastern Swabian Alb, it occurs in clearings, embankments and forest edges. It can be observed often in species-rich, relatively wet woodland margins with Zygaena osterodensis, Satyrium ilicis and Z. lonicerae along forest paths through ash- and oak-rich, light forests. They also reproduce in margins of higher growing, little grazed limestone grasslands and similar places. In Valais, I met adults on clearings of Larix forests on steep slopes with Lathyrus pratensis still at 2100m above sea level.

Life cycle:
A single generation is performed from late June to July. The young caterpillar overwinters in the second instar at ground level. Eggs are laid on the upper leaf surface, rarely also on stems particularly of Vicia cracca. The males patrol often quite persistent in the habitat. The females are much less noticeable.

Endangerment: endangered

Endangerment factors:
Polyommatus amandus is locally in expansion and can also colonize abandoned sheep pastures (juniper heathland). But overall, it has already lost many sites due to increasing dark forest management, eutrophication, succession and the general loss of uncultivated places. Thus it is endangered

The distribution ranges from Northwest Africa to Spain (very local, more in the north), Southern France, Italy (Apennines) and the Alps (central and southern parts). Polyommatus amandus is more widespread east and southeast of the line eastern Swabian Alb in Germany - Denmark - Norway and occurs to Western Asia (Turkey, Iran, southern Russia).

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