Callophrys rubi (Linnaeus, 1758)


Callophrys rubi: Adult [S] Callophrys rubi: Adult (Provence, France, April 2010) [N] Callophrys rubi: Adult (Abruzzes, L Callophrys rubi: Adult [N] Callophrys rubi: Mating (Kanisfluh, Vorarlberg, W-Austria, May 2010) [N] Callophrys rubi: Adult [N] Callophrys rubi: Adult (Valais, Switzerland) [N] Callophrys rubi: Adult (Northern Greece, May 2011) [N] Callophrys rubi: Adult (Northern Greece, May 2011) [N] Callophrys rubi: Ovum at Helianthemum [N] Callophrys rubi: Ovum (detail) [N] Callophrys rubi: Half-grown larva [S] Callophrys rubi: Larva [N] Callophrys rubi: Larva [S] Callophrys rubi: Larva [M] Callophrys rubi: Pupa [S] Callophrys rubi: Habitat in a Vaccinium-rich moor at the northern edge of the Alps (2006) [N] Callophrys rubi: Habitat in a limestone grassland with Helianthemum nummularium and Genista sagittalis on the eastern Swabian Alb (Germany, 2006) [N] Callophrys rubi: Habitat in a limestone grassland with Onobrychis viciifolia and Helianthemum nummularium (eastern Swabian Alb, Germany, 2009) [N] Callophrys rubi: Further habitat: broom-rich pasture in the central mountain range in Sardinia (May 2012) [N]

Host plants:
The larvae feed on Fabaceae such as brooms or sainfoin, on Cistaceae (Helianthemum nummularium) and Ericaceae. On acidic grasslands the caterpillars often live on Genista sagittalis, on calcareous at Helianthemum nummularium. In moors and on sand heaths or mats in the central Alps, the eggs are often laid on Vaccinium sp.

Habitat:
Callophrys rubi inhabits open land and dwarf shrub zones. Almost all nutrient-poor habitats can be settled, such as limestone grasslands, heaths, moors, very sparse forests, alpine pastures and the Mediterranean maquis. Callophrys rubi rises as the only European Hairstreak in the Alpine area up to over 2600m above sea level. Only Satyrium spini is able to settle on warm slopes up to nearly 1800m above sea level in the Southwestern Alps, but not in the northern Alps.

Life cycle:
The pupa hibernates. The adults occur in almost always only a single generation from April to June, in the mountains even until July. The larva can be found from May to July/August.

Endangerment: regionally endangered or decreasing

Endangerment factors:
In the lowlands, Callophrys rubi is in decline by the loss of economical worthless country (grasslands, sandy heaths, etc.) and thus occurs more and more on small-scale special locations. In the mountains and in Southern Europe, however, the butterfly is not endangered.

Remarks:
Callophrys rubi occurs from north Africa across Europe and large parts of northern and Central Asia to the Amur.