Colias chrysotheme (Esper, [1781])


Colias chrysotheme: Male (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Male (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Male (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Male (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Male (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Male (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Male (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Male (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [M] Colias chrysotheme: Female (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Female (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Female (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Female (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Female (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Female (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Female (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Female (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [M] Colias chrysotheme: Oviposition (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Oviposition (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Oviposition (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Oviposition (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Oviposition (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Oviposition (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Oviposition (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Oviposition (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Oviposition (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Oviposition (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Egg (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Egg (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Egg (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Egg (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Egg (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Egg (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Egg after a few days (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Egg after a few days (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Egg after a few days (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Egg after a few days (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Egg after a few days (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Egg after a few days (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Hatching larva (Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Hatching larva (Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Hatching larva (Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the first instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the first instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the first instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the first instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the second instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the second instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the second instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the second instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the second instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the third instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the third instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the third instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the third instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the penultimate instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the penultimate instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the penultimate instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the penultimate instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the field in the penultimate instar (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [M] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the field in the penultimate instar (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [M] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the field in the penultimate instar (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [M] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the field in the penultimate instar (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [M] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the penultimate instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the penultimate instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar. There is a form with indistinct to distinct whit-red subdorsal lines of various degrees of completeness (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar. There is a form with indistinct to distinct whit-red subdorsal lines of various degrees of completeness (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar. There is a form with indistinct to distinct whit-red subdorsal lines of various degrees of completeness (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar. There is a form with indistinct to distinct whit-red subdorsal lines of various degrees of completeness (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar. There is a form with indistinct to distinct whit-red subdorsal lines of various degrees of completeness (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar. There is a form with indistinct to distinct whit-red subdorsal lines of various degrees of completeness (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar. There is a form with indistinct to distinct whit-red subdorsal lines of various degrees of completeness (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar. There is a form with indistinct to distinct whit-red subdorsal lines of various degrees of completeness (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar. There is a form with indistinct to distinct whit-red subdorsal lines of various degrees of completeness (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar. There is a form with indistinct to distinct whit-red subdorsal lines of various degrees of completeness (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larva in the last instar. There is a form with indistinct to distinct whit-red subdorsal lines of various degrees of completeness (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Prepupa (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Pupa (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Pupa (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Pupa (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Pupa (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Pupa (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Pupa (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Pupa (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Pupa (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Pupa (e.o. rearing, Hungary, Veszprém, egg in late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Oviposition plant Astragalus austriacus (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Oviposition plant Astragalus austriacus (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Larval habitat with Astragalus austriacus (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Larval habitat with Astragalus austriacus (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Larval habitat with Astragalus austriacus (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [S] Colias chrysotheme: Larval habitat with Astragalus austriacus (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Larval habitat with Astragalus austriacus (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Larval habitat with Astragalus austriacus (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Larval habitat with Astragalus austriacus (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Habitat with Astragalus austriacus (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Habitat with Astragalus austriacus (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Habitat with Astragalus austriacus (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Habitat with Astragalus austriacus (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Habitat with Astragalus austriacus (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Habitat with Astragalus austriacus (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N] Colias chrysotheme: Habitat with Astragalus austriacus (Hungary, Veszprém, late July 2020) [N]

Host plants:
The larvae feed on Astragalus austriacus. Reputedly they have been recorded also on Vicia hirsuta in E-Austria. In own rearing Vicia (cracca, tetrasperma) was refused, but Astragalus glyciphyllos accepted. Thus especially in Asia also other Astragalus species may be involved.

Habitat:
Colias chrysotheme inhabits sparsely vegetated or at least low-growing steppe grasslands with the host plant in the lowlands below 500m. Near Veszprém (W-Hungary) it is found in dolomite steppes. In Asia ssp. elena is also found in the high mountains.

Life cycle:
The adults occur in up to four or even five generations between April and October. In Europe Colias chrysotheme is most numerous in May and early June and especially from mid-July to mid-September. Oviposition occurs most often on the upper surface of the leaflets, but also in the tips of shoots and occasionally on stems of the host plant. The initially whitish eggs change to orange-red after some days and to grey before hatching as it is the case with other Colias. The larva develops very fast and can be mature in hot temperatures in less than two weeks. The red/white lateral stripe is characteristic. Some larvae also show a more or less complete similar coloured subdorsal line.

Endangerment factors:
Colias chrysotheme is heavily endangered in central and eastern Europe. Reasons are as usual the destruction of the economically worthless habitats for building houses, traffic routes, industrial areas and for agricultural intensification (transfer into arable land, fertilization) or afforestation. The last remaining habitats are threatened by abandonment of former extensive grazing and by nitrogen deposition via air pollution.

Remarks:
Colias chrysotheme is usually local and occurs from E-Austria and Bohemia across Hungary, Romania and the Ukraine to Sibiria, Mongolia and China. In Austria Colias chrysotheme used to be a bit more widespread in the eastern part, but is now extinct except for small relics (today still in the Steinfeld in Lower Austria) due to habitat destruction.



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