Euchloe charlonia (Donzel, 1842)

Euchloe charlonia: Adult (Fuerteventura, February 2011) [N] Euchloe charlonia: Adult (e.l. Fuerteventura) [S] Euchloe charlonia: Upper side [N] Euchloe charlonia: Lower side [N] Euchloe charlonia: Lower side [S] Euchloe charlonia: Ovum [M] Euchloe charlonia: L1 larva [S] Euchloe charlonia: Young larva [S] Euchloe charlonia: Half-grown larva [S] Euchloe charlonia: Larva [S] Euchloe charlonia: Larva (e.l. Fuerteventura) [S] Euchloe charlonia: Pupa [S] Euchloe charlonia: Habitat in Fuerteventura, where I observed also ovae of Hyles livornica [N]

Host plants:
I found eggs in Fuerteventura on the underside of leaves of Carrichtera annua and Hirschfeldia incana (only lowest leaves) that grew on earth and debris. The caterpillars eat primarily leaves, but also flowers and fruits. Elsewhere, other Brassicaceae are occupied (literature: Reseda, Diplotaxis others).

Euchloe charlonia inhabits arid areas, rocky, barren slopes and occurs often around somewhat wetter valleys where the larval host plants grow.

Life cycle:
The adults fly mainly in the spring from January to April, later only sporadically. In the arid habitats there are hardly larval host plants available in summer, so most pupae aestivate (diapause). I found many butterflies and eggs, but still no caterpillars, in Fuerteventura in mid February 2007.

Endangerment factors:
Euchloe charlonia is locally threatened by expansion of tourism infrastructure, as it is still the case in the Canaries. This is true even if these measurements may result in some cases in new habitats due to irrigation. Besides, Euchloe charlonia is threatened by overgrazing. But it is still relatively widespread in Fuerteventura.

Euchloe charlonia occurs in north Africa, the easternmost (driest) Canary Islands (Fuerteventura to La Graciosa) and very rare and only at a few sites in the Iberian Peninsula.

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