Cupido argiades (Pallas, 1771)


Cupido argiades: Male (Schloß Stetten, Künzelsau, northeast Baden-Württemberg, 09/08/2012) [N] Cupido argiades: Male (Schloß Stetten, eastern Baden-Württemberg), 09/08/2012 [N] Cupido argiades: Male (Schloß Stetten, Ostwürttemberg), 09/08/2012 [N] Cupido argiades: Male [N] Cupido argiades: Male (Schloß Stetten, Ostwürttemberg), 09/08/2012 [N] Cupido argiades: Male [N] Cupido argiades: Male (district of Böblingen, S-Germany) [N] Cupido argiades: Lower side [N] Cupido argiades: Female [S] Cupido argiades: Female (SW-Germany, Pfalz, August 2008) [N] Cupido argiades: Female (Kreis Böblingen) [N] Cupido argiades: Female (Schloß Stetten, Ostwürttemberg), 09/08/2012 [N] Cupido argiades: Female (Schloß Stetten, Ostwürttemberg), 09/08/2012 [N] Cupido argiades: Female (Schloß Stetten, Ostwürttemberg), 09/08/2012 [N] Cupido argiades: Female [S] Cupido argiades: Female (Schwäbisch Hall, July 2010) [N] Cupido argiades: Female (Schloß Stetten, Ostwürttemberg), 09/08/2012 [N] Cupido argiades: Mating (Schloß Stetten, August 2012) [N] Cupido argiades: Mating (Schloß Stetten, August 2012) [N] Cupido argiades: Oviposition takes place partially also in already older inflorescences, especially when oviposition substrate only occurs in in low density. [N] Cupido argiades: Oviposition (district of Böblingen, S-Germany) [N] Cupido argiades: Oviposition (Schwäbisch Hall, S-Germany, July 2010) [N] Cupido argiades: Trifolium pratense with eggs (subterminal inflorescence) [N] Cupido argiades: Ovae in Trifolium pratense inflorescence [M] Cupido argiades: Ovae at Lotus corniculatus (SW-Germany, Pfalz, late August 2008) [N] Cupido argiades: Half-grown larva [M] Cupido argiades: Larva in last instar [S] Cupido argiades: Larva [S] Cupido argiades: Larva (green form) [S] Cupido argiades: Larva at Hornklee [M] Cupido argiades: Pupa [S] Cupido argiades: Pupa [S] Cupido argiades: Habitat: quite dry orchard meadow near Künzelsau (S-Germany) [N] Cupido argiades: Habitat: humide grassland in the Upper Rhine Valley (SW-Germany, Pfalz) , where also Lycaena dispar occurs (late August 2008). [N] Cupido argiades: Habitat in a humid meadow/fallow land at Schloß Stetten (eastern Baden-Württemberg), where also Lycaena dispar occurs. 09/08/2012 [N]

Host plants:
The eggs are deposited on flowers and buds of Fabaceae. Most important are Trifolium pratense, Lotus corniculatus and Lotus uliginosus. In addition, the literature also mentions Medicago, Coronilla and Astragalus.

Habitat:
Cupido argiades inhabits particularly extensive wet meadows, fens and wet fallow land. In addition, it is also found in woodland clearings, on dams and occasionally also in drier grasslands.

Life cycle:
Cupido argiades has between two and four generations per year. In southwestern Germany there are usually three (April/May, mid-June to early August and late August to September). The mature caterpillar overwinters as praepupa (takes no more food in the spring). I met eggs and caterpillars, which live freely in the flower heads, several times from July to September on Trifolium pratense and Lotus. Often the detection of eggs and caterpillars is much more effective than that of the butterfly. For that a sample of the flowering shoots in the right phenological state (just faded) should be collected (the plants are not endangered), suitably stored and shaken out several times after a few days. The caterpillars are easily distinguished from those of Polyommatus semiargus and P. icarus. Also, the eggs can be searched with quick success at the site, so that the method of detection of the larvae is recommended only if you have to seek in the phenological hole between generations.

Endangerment: endangered

Endangerment factors:
Cupido argiades is endangered due to the decline of extensive wetlands and was already strongly suppressed in the Upper Rhine Valley until the early 1990s. The increasingly manifesting global warming has since that brought a boom to the polyvoltine, mobile species. So they could already spread eastward to Bavaria. 2010, she has also reached Schwäbisch Gmünd. Whether it goes up also to the Swabian Alb remains to be seen.

It is now found also on the Upper Rhine in many additional habitats, such as even in completely overgrown clearings (with neophytes like Solidago canadensis). However, I think is in spite not unthreatened because the primary key habitats have almost disappeared (species-rich and extensive wet meadows) and already a perennial cool weather could wipe out many new populations again.

Remarks:
The total distribution ranges from Northern Spain across central and Eastern Europe and temperate Asia to Japan. In Germany it is focused mainly in the catchment area of the Upper Rhine (Baden-Württemberg, Rhineland-Palatinate), but has spread in recent years as portrayed strongly.



Cupido alcetas | Cupido lorquinii | Cupido minimus | Cupido osiris