Brenthis ino (Rottemburg, 1775)


Brenthis ino: Male (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany) [N] Brenthis ino: Male (Schwäbisch Gmünd, S-Germany, June 2012) [N] Brenthis ino: Male (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, June 2012) [N] Brenthis ino: Female (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, June 2012) [N] Brenthis ino: Female (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, June 2012) [N] Brenthis ino: Female (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, June 2012) [N] Brenthis ino: Female (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, June 2012) [N] Brenthis ino: Female (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, June 2012) [N] Brenthis ino: Female (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, June 2012) [N] Brenthis ino: Female (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, June 2012) [N] Brenthis ino: Lower side [M] Brenthis ino: Female at oviposition (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, June 2012) [N] Brenthis ino: Female at oviposition (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, June 2012) [N] Brenthis ino: Freshly deposited ovum (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, June 2012) [M] Brenthis ino: Ovum after a week [S] Brenthis ino: Ovae after a week [S] Brenthis ino: Half-grown larva (eastern Swabian Alb, Heidenheim/Brenz, May 2013) [M] Brenthis ino: Half-grown larva (eastern Swabian Alb, Heidenheim/Brenz, May 2013) [M] Brenthis ino: Half-grown larva (eastern Swabian Alb, Heidenheim/Brenz, May 2013) [M] Brenthis ino: Half-grown larva (eastern Swabian Alb, Heidenheim/Brenz, May 2013) [M] Brenthis ino: Half-grown larva (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany) [M] Brenthis ino: Half-grown larva (eastern Swabian Alb, Heidenheim/Brenz, May 2013) [S] Brenthis ino: Half-grown larva (eastern Swabian Alb, Heidenheim/Brenz, May 2013) [S] Brenthis ino: Half-grown larva (eastern Swabian Alb, Heidenheim/Brenz, May 2013) [S] Brenthis ino: Larva (e.l. eastern Swabian Alb 2013) [S] Brenthis ino: Larva (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany) [N] Brenthis ino: Larva [S] Brenthis ino: Larva [N] Brenthis ino: Larva (e.l. eastern Swabian Alb 2013) [S] Brenthis ino: Pupa lateral [S] Brenthis ino: Pupa dorsal [S] Brenthis ino: Habitat near Hermaringen on the eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany (Filipendula vulgaris on the reed edge) [N] Brenthis ino: Habitat in the Jagsttal (northeast Baden-Württemberg), where also Maculinea nausithous occurs. July 2011. [N] Brenthis ino: Habitat in a humid stream valley on the southwestern Swabian Alb near Veringenstadt (May 2011) [N] Brenthis ino: Habitat in of fen around a pond (vicinity of Geißelhardt, northern Württemberg, July 2010) [N] Brenthis ino: Threat: early mowing of the wetlands (Schwäbisch Hall, Germany, 2010) [N]

Host plants:
The caterpillars feed on Filipendula ulmaria, more rarely also other Rosaceae like Sanguisorba officinalis.

Habitat:
Brenthis ino colonizes wet forb communities, ditches, Molinia meadows with forbs especially at the edges, wetland complexes etc. and is also found in small areas.

Life cycle:
Hibernation takes place as a fully developed caterpillar in the egg shell. The caterpillar hatches in March or early april and is mature between mid-May and mid-June. The larvae can be observed on the host plant mostly at night, early in the morning or in rainy weather. It hides otherwise close to the ground in the litter. The adults fly from June to July, rarely even in early August or already in late May. The peak is reached usually in late June. Mostly the flight time has already ended or is at least in the last third when Filipendula ulmaria stands in full bloom.

Endangerment: regionally endangered or decreasing

Endangerment factors:
Brenthis ino is able to colonize smaller stocks of food plant, as in ditches in the agricultural landscape. Brenthis ino will be pushed back by constant mowing of such sites and also by overgrowing with willow, alder or reed. Sometimes Brenthis ino is locally threatened by creation of ponds and plantings of trees in the remaining habitats. Overall, however, it is one of the more common wetland species and often has a chance to survive as Filipendula ulmaria can cope with higher nutrient loads.

Remarks:
The total distribution ranges from Northern Spain across Central and Northern Europe far into temperate Asia (to Japan).



Brenthis daphne | Brenthis hecate