Maniola bathseba (Fabricius, 1793)


Maniola bathseba: Upper side (Alpilles, western Provence) [N] Maniola bathseba: Upper side (Andalusia, late June 2008) [N] Maniola bathseba: Upper side (Andalusia, late June 2008) [N] Maniola bathseba: Adult (east Spain, CastellÚn, late July 2013) [N] Maniola bathseba: Adult (east Spain, CastellÚn, July 2013) [N] Maniola bathseba: Adult, victim of a crab spider (east Spain, Castellon, late July 2013) [N] Maniola bathseba: Lower side (Andalusia 2008) [N] Maniola bathseba: Lower side (Andalusia 2008) [N] Maniola bathseba: Male [S] Maniola bathseba: Lower side [M] Maniola bathseba: Ovum (does not adhere to the substrate) [S] Maniola bathseba: L1-larva (e.o. Andalusia 2008) [S] Maniola bathseba: Young larva [S] Maniola bathseba: Half-grown larva [S] Maniola bathseba: Larva in penultimate instar [S] Maniola bathseba: Larva [S] Maniola bathseba: Larva [S] Maniola bathseba: Larva [S] Maniola bathseba: Larva [S] Maniola bathseba: Pupa [S] Maniola bathseba: Pupa [S] Maniola bathseba: Habitat is here an open shrubby slope with oaks (Andalusia 2008) [N] Maniola bathseba: Habitat in east Spain (CastellÚn, July 2013) [N]

Host plants:
The larvae feed on grasses.

Habitat:
Maniola bathseba colonizes the Mediterranean scrub, grassy places in sparse scrub forest, fallow land in vineyards and similar sites from sea level to about 500m above sea level in France and up to over 1000m asl in Spain.

Life cycle:
The adults fly between mid-May and June in Southern France (seen in the Alpilles and at Perpignan). In Andalusia in 2008, many butterflies flew in about 1000m asl in late June. In 2013 I even observed many adults in east Spain (CastellÚn) in late July. The eggs hatch not before early autumn, when the first rainfalls provide for sprouting grasses. Then the caterpillar developes quite slow but mostly steady and interrupted only by short cold phases until spring. The last, most hungry instar coincides with the time of the spring shoot from March to early May (depending on height).

Endangerment factors:
In places, Maniola bathseba is severly endangered despite its rather small claims and the original wide distribution of potential habitats by intensive agriculture (wine, e.g. south of Perpiugnan) and tourism. In Spain, Maniola bathseba had to withdraw in many places in protected mountain areas and topographically rest habitats, since in the lowlands have been degraded to EU funded, huge fruit, vegetables and olive groves.

Remarks:
Maniola bathseba is distributed from Northwest Africa across the Iberian Peninsula and along the Mediterranean Sea to the southwestern corner of the Alps (Var) in France.



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