Brenthis daphne (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)


Brenthis daphne: Male (N-Greece, Smolikas, late June 2013) [N] Brenthis daphne: Female (N-Greece, Vitsi N Kastoria, late June 2013) [N] Brenthis daphne: Adult (Valais, Switzerland) [N] Brenthis daphne: Adult (Massif de la Sainte Baume) [N] Brenthis daphne: Adult (N-Greece, early July 2013) [N] Brenthis daphne: Lower side (Valais, Switzerland) [N] Brenthis daphne: Adult (Sainte Baume) [N] Brenthis daphne: Upper side [S] Brenthis daphne: Lower side [S] Brenthis daphne: Female [N] Brenthis daphne: Oviposition at calyx of fruiting Rubus caesius (Valais, July 2008) [N] Brenthis daphne: Ovae at calyx of Rubus caesius (different ovipositions!), Valais, July 2008 [M] Brenthis daphne: Ovum at leaf under side (Valais, July 2008) [M] Brenthis daphne: Young larva (Valais, April 2009) [N] Brenthis daphne: Young larva (Valais, April 2009) [N] Brenthis daphne: Half-grown larva (Valais, Switzerland) [N] Brenthis daphne: Larva (e.l. Valais, Switzerland) [S] Brenthis daphne: Larva [S] Brenthis daphne: Larva (e.l. Valais, Switzerland) [S] Brenthis daphne: Larva [M] Brenthis daphne: Pupa [S] Brenthis daphne: Pupa [S] Brenthis daphne: Pupa [S] Brenthis daphne: Oviposition place in the Valais with Rubus caesius (July 2008) [N] Brenthis daphne: Larval habitat in Valais (April) [N] Brenthis daphne: Habitat in Provence, France, in a stream valley where also Satyrium esculi and Laeosopis roboris occur. June 2009 [N]

Host plants:
The larvae feed on Rubus species such as Rubus caesius and Rubus fruticosus agg.

Habitat:
Brenthis daphne inhabits edges of hot and dry to moderately humid forests, shrubbery rich dry slopes and ruderal areas and similar habitats. In Germany it is found only in the Upper Rhine Valley and in Brandenburg, where it is threatened with extinction.

Life cycle:
Usually the caterpillar overwinters in the egg. In Central Europe a single generation flies in June/July. Eggs are laid on the leaves, but apparently also often in the flowers or on the petals of the fruit (observed on Rubus caesius in Valais). I observed the caterpillar in the spring (April), feeding in the sunshine and then hiding again in the litter (Valais).

Endangerment: threatened with extinction

Endangerment factors:
Brenthis daphne is endangered because the habitat is often considered as worthless and is thus easily destroyed (viticulture, industry, generic intensification and use of every small area in the landscape). Additionally, there are factors like removal of broad forest edhges (integration in fields and meadows) and succession with trees.

In Southern Europe and in the Southwestern Alps, Brenthis daphne is still more common and less endangered.

Remarks:
The distribution ranges from Northern Spain through Southern and Central Europe to China and Japan.



Brenthis hecate | Brenthis ino