Nymphalis c-album (Linnaeus, 1758)

Synonyms/other combinations:
Polygonia c-album

Nymphalis c-album: Upper side [N] Nymphalis c-album: Adult (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, June 2012) [N] Nymphalis c-album: Adult in the April [N] Nymphalis c-album: Adult [N] Nymphalis c-album: Adult [N] Nymphalis c-album: Adult (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, August 2012) [N] Nymphalis c-album: Adult [N] Nymphalis c-album: Lower side [N] Nymphalis c-album: Adult [S] Nymphalis c-album: Ovum at Urtica (northern Upper Rhine, late June 2011) [N] Nymphalis c-album: Ovum at Urtica (northern Upper Rhine, late June 2011) [N] Nymphalis c-album: L1 [S] Nymphalis c-album: L1 (moult rest into L2) [S] Nymphalis c-album: Half-grown larva [S] Nymphalis c-album: Half-grown larva [M] Nymphalis c-album: Larva after the last moult  [S] Nymphalis c-album: Larva [S] Nymphalis c-album: Larva [M] Nymphalis c-album: Larva [M] Nymphalis c-album: Larva [S] Nymphalis c-album: Larva [S] Nymphalis c-album: Prepupa [S] Nymphalis c-album: Pupa [S] Nymphalis c-album: Pupa [S] Nymphalis c-album: Pupa [S] Nymphalis c-album: Pupa [S]

Host plants:
The caterpillar develops at Urticaceae like Urtica dioica or Humulus lupulus, at Ulmaceae like Ulmus glabra and at Salicaceae like Salix caprea.

Habitat:
Nymphalis c-album is more exacting than Vanessa urticae. Mostly, the butterfly occurs in the forests or in at least wood-rich habitats like alluvial forests, open mixed forests, parks and gardens. It occurs only rarely in a completely open landscape.

Life cycle:
Nymphalis c-album hibernates as an adult and usually has two generations in Central Europe. The second generation is sometimes not quite complete. The butterfly appears in March/April and flies up to early June. Caterpillars are then found in the June/July and new adults in mid to late summer. Their descendants occur as caterpillars from July, but especially in August/September. The caterpillars are quite common for example along shady woodland trails on the lower leaf surface of older nettles or elms at the end of August.

Endangerment factors:
Nymphalis c-album is endangered only weakly through general loss of landscape diversity.

Remarks:
The distribution extends from North Africa across Europe and temperate Asia to Japan.



Nymphalis antiopa | Nymphalis egea | Nymphalis ichnusa | Nymphalis io | Nymphalis polychloros | Nymphalis urticae