Argynnis paphia (Linnaeus, 1758)


Argynnis paphia: Male (Heidenheim, eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, early August 2011) [N] Argynnis paphia: Male (Olympus, Greece, July 2010) [N] Argynnis paphia: Male (Olympus, July 2010) [N] Argynnis paphia: Male (Illerbeuren near Memmingen, S-Germany, August 2013) Argynnis paphia: Male and Female (Allgäu Alps, S-Bavaria, 1400m asl, August 2013) [N] Argynnis paphia: Male (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, August 2012) [N] Argynnis paphia: Male (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, August 2012) [N] Argynnis paphia: Male (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, August 2012) [N] Argynnis paphia: Male (Olympus, Greece, July 2010) [N] Argynnis paphia: Male (Olympus, Greece, July 2010) [N] Argynnis paphia: Male (Olympus, July 2010) [N] Argynnis paphia: Male [N] Argynnis paphia: Female (Olympus, July 2010) [N] Argynnis paphia: Female (Olympus, early August 2012) [N] Argynnis paphia: Female (Olympus, July 2010) [N] Argynnis paphia: Female (Olympus, July 2010) [N] Argynnis paphia: Many adults feeding on Umbellifers (Olympus, July 2010) [N] Argynnis paphia: Male [N] Argynnis paphia: Male-lower side [N] Argynnis paphia: Lower side (Olympus 2012) [N] Argynnis paphia: Female upper side [N] Argynnis paphia: Lower side [N] Argynnis paphia: Female [N] Argynnis paphia: Mating (Illerbeuren near Memmingen, August 2013) [N] Argynnis paphia: Ovum at trunk [S] Argynnis paphia: Egg at spruce trunk (Memmingen, August 2012) [N] Argynnis paphia: Egg at spruce trunk (Memmingen, August 2012) [N] Argynnis paphia: L1 larva [S] Argynnis paphia: L1 larva [S] Argynnis paphia: L2 larva [S] Argynnis paphia: L2 larva [S] Argynnis paphia: L3 larva [S] Argynnis paphia: L3 larva [S] Argynnis paphia: L3 larva [S] Argynnis paphia: L3 larva [S] Argynnis paphia: L3 [S] Argynnis paphia: Larva in penultimate instar [S] Argynnis paphia: Larva in penultimate instar [S] Argynnis paphia: Larva in penultimate instar [S] Argynnis paphia: Larva [S] Argynnis paphia: Larva [S] Argynnis paphia: Larva [S] Argynnis paphia: Larva [S] Argynnis paphia: Larva [S] Argynnis paphia: Larva [S] Argynnis paphia: Larva [S] Argynnis paphia: Larva [S] Argynnis paphia: Larva [S] Argynnis paphia: Prepupa [S] Argynnis paphia: Pupation [S] Argynnis paphia: Pupation [S] Argynnis paphia: Pupation [S] Argynnis paphia: Pupation [S] Argynnis paphia: Pupation [S] Argynnis paphia: Pupa [S] Argynnis paphia: Pupa [S] Argynnis paphia: Pupa [S] Argynnis paphia: Pupa [S] Argynnis paphia: Imaginal habitat with Eupatorium cannabinum (eastern Swabian Alb, August 2012) [N] Argynnis paphia: Habitat in a light spruce forest in Southern Germany. Oviposition takes place at spruce bark and the caterpillars live on Viola reichenbachiana and other violets in the herb layer. [N]

Host plants:
The larva feeds on viola species (violets).

Habitat:
Argynnis paphia inhabits forests of all kinds up to about 1300m above sea level (rarely higher). Important are denser occurrances of violets and sunny to half shaded forb communities with Origanum vulgare, Eupatorium cannabinum or thistles for the adults.

Life cycle:
The butterflies occur in summer from July to mid-September. Oviposition takes place often (but if only ?) at the bark of standing trees in the forest mantle or within the forest. The caterpillars hatch in autumn and pass the winter without feeding in bark crevices. In spring they come down to the ground and start feeding on violets. I found caterpillars, usually in moult rest, on leaves or stems in the shrub layer during the day. The pupae are often attached to the bark of e.g. spruces.

Endangerment factors:
Argynnis paphia is often endangered only slightly and is still present in most forest areas. Nevertheless the abundances have often declined drastically in recent decades. Clearings with dozens of butterflies were formerly not uncommon, but are now restricted to a few habitats. The reason is the darkening of the forests through dense afforestations without clearings, reduction of forest edges to a narrow line, ongoing eutrophication, and finally the overgrowing of former open, light riparian forests after river regulation.

Remarks:
The distribution ranges from north Africa (locally in Algeria) across Europe far into temperate Asia (to Yakutia).



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