Boloria selene (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)


Boloria selene: Adult (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, June 2012) [N] Boloria selene: Adult (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, June 2012) [N] Boloria selene: Adult (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany 2012) Boloria selene: Adult (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, June 2012) [N] Boloria selene: Adult (eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany, June 2012) [N] Boloria selene: Adult, victim of a crab spider (eastern Swabian Alb, S-Germany, mid-June 2013) [N] Boloria selene: Upper side [S] Boloria selene: Lower side [S] Boloria selene: Ovum [S] Boloria selene: Ovum [S] Boloria selene: L1-larva (end of the instar) [S] Boloria selene: L2-larva [S] Boloria selene: L2-larva [S] Boloria selene: Young larva [S] Boloria selene: Young larva [S] Boloria selene: Half-grown larva [S] Boloria selene: Half-grown larva [S] Boloria selene: Larva in penultimate instar [S] Boloria selene: Larva in penultimate instar [S] Boloria selene: Larva in penultimate instar [S] Boloria selene: Larva in penultimate instar [S] Boloria selene: Young larva [S] Boloria selene: Half-grown larva [S] Boloria selene: Larva in last instar [S] Boloria selene: Larva in last instar [S] Boloria selene: Fully-grownlarva [S] Boloria selene: Larva [S] Boloria selene: Larva [S] Boloria selene: Larva [S] Boloria selene: Larva [S] Boloria selene: Larva [S] Boloria selene: Larva, found on Viola reichenbachiana on a small clearing with larvae of Erebia ligea and Lopinga achine (river Iller near Memmingen, mid-May 2013) [M] Boloria selene: Larva [S] Boloria selene: Larva [S] Boloria selene: Pupa [S] Boloria selene: Pupa [S] Boloria selene: Pupa [S] Boloria selene: Larval habitat with Viola reichenbachiana at river Iller near Memmingen (S-Germany, mid-May 2013) [N] Boloria selene: Larval habitat at river Iller near Memmingen in mid-May 2013. The species copes with more shady and overgrown places than Boloria euphrosyne. [N] Boloria selene: Habitat on a clearing on the eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany [N] Boloria selene: Habitat on a humid clearing on the eastern Swabian Alb, Southern Germany. Die adults often feed on Cirsium palustre. June 2012. [N]

Host plants:
The larva feeds on Viola secies such as Viola canina or Viola palustris.

Habitat:
Boloria selene inhabits forests (clear-cuttings), fens, bog edges and usually acidic grasslands. In the Swabian Jura Boloria selene occurs more in coniferous afforestations, on clearings and humid grasslands. It is usually missing in xerothermic calcareous grasslands.
Boloria selene often still occurs in heavily overgrown (grasses, herbs, bushes) clearings where Boloria euphrosyne has already vanished.

Life cycle:
The adults fly in two generations from May to early July and from August to September. The last generation is often only partially. At suitable sites (especially wet clearings) they are usually quite abundant.

The caterpillars overwinter probably as L3.

Endangerment: endangered

Endangerment factors:
In the lowlands Boloria selene is in decline in many regions due to habitat loss because of eutrophication and destruction of wetlands and a tendency in forestry towards darker and darker woodlands (high forests without clearings and any open places). Fen sites were pushed back in many regions mainly by the intensive agriculture and forestry to very small remains.

Remarks:
The distribution is Holarctic. In Europe it is more restricted to the central and northern areas (misses in the direct Mediterranean region).



Boloria aquilonaris | Boloria dia | Boloria eunomia | Boloria euphrosyne | Boloria graeca | Boloria napaea | Boloria pales | Boloria thore | Boloria titania