Erebia pronoe (Esper, 1780)


Erebia pronoe: Male (Lechtal, Forchach, August 2010) [N] Erebia pronoe: Male (Lechtal, Forchach, August 2010) [N] Erebia pronoe: Male (Lechtal, Forchach, August 2010) [N] Erebia pronoe: Male (Lechtal, Forchach, August 2010) [N] Erebia pronoe: Male (Lechtal, Forchach, August 2010) [N] Erebia pronoe: Adult, victim of a crab spider (Forchach, Austria) [N] Erebia pronoe: Female (Forchach, Lechtal, Austria, August 2010) [N] Erebia pronoe: Female (Forchach, Lechtal, Austria, August 2010) [N] Erebia pronoe: Female (Forchach, Lechtal, August 2010) [N] Erebia pronoe: Female (Forchach, Lechtal, August 2010), aberrativ gefärbt [N] Erebia pronoe: Female (Forchach, Lechtal, August 2010) [N] Erebia pronoe: Female (Forchach, Lechtal, Austria, August 2010) [N] Erebia pronoe: Female-upper side [N] Erebia pronoe: Female [M] Erebia pronoe: Female-lower side [M] Erebia pronoe: Mating [N] Erebia pronoe: Ovum [N] Erebia pronoe: Ovum after some days [S] Erebia pronoe: L1 [S] Erebia pronoe: L1 larva [S] Erebia pronoe: L2-larva [S] Erebia pronoe: L2 [S] Erebia pronoe: Young larva [S] Erebia pronoe: Half-grown larva [S] Erebia pronoe: Half-grown larva [S] Erebia pronoe: Larva, just in last instar [S] Erebia pronoe: Larva, fully-grown [S] Erebia pronoe: Larva [S] Erebia pronoe: Larva [S] Erebia pronoe: Larva [S] Erebia pronoe: Larva [S] Erebia pronoe: Larva, fully-grown [S] Erebia pronoe: Larva in last instar, dark form [S] Erebia pronoe: Larva [S] Erebia pronoe: Larva [S] Erebia pronoe: Pupa [S] Erebia pronoe: Pupa, ventral [S] Erebia pronoe: Pupa, dorsal [S] Erebia pronoe: Pupa [S] Erebia pronoe: Pupa [S] Erebia pronoe: Pupa [S] Erebia pronoe: Habitat in the Lechtal near Forchach below 1000 m above sea level [N]

Host plants:
The caterpillars feed on grasses (Cyperaceae and Poaceae) of usually base-rich sites.

Habitat:
Erebia pronoe inhabits pastures, meadows, rocky slopes and clearings in the Alps and other mountain ranges from about 800m above sea level up to over 2300m above sea level, most often on calcareous ground. In the northern and regionally also the Southern Alps Erebia pronoe is quite common. Oviposition sites are more in the nutrient-poor areas.

In the Lech valley in western Austria, the butterflies occur on the southern slope down to the pebbly and dry, pine-rich floodplain.

Life cycle:
Erebia pronoe hibernates as L1 and grows only little in autumn, but gnaws on grasses and sedges. The caterpillar is mature in late June or more often not before July. Therefore, the flight time of the single generation is late from late July to mid/late September. Butterflies love to visit flowers (Scabiosa lucida, Centaurea etc.).

Endangerment factors:
Erebia pronoe is endangered most often only in lower sites by habitat changes (afforestation, abandonment, forest/pasture separation, infrastructure).

Remarks:
Erebia pronoe is distributed in the Alps. In addition, it is found in the western Swiss Jura and the French Jura Mountains, in the Pyrenees, in the Tatra Mountains and the Carpathians, and very locally in the Balkans.



Erebia aethiops | Erebia alberganus | Erebia calcaria | Erebia cassioides | Erebia claudina | Erebia epiphron | Erebia epistygne | Erebia eriphyle | Erebia euryale | Erebia flavofasciata | Erebia gorge | Erebia lefebvrei | Erebia ligea | Erebia manto | Erebia medusa | Erebia melampus | Erebia melas | Erebia meolans | Erebia mnestra | Erebia montana | Erebia neoridas | Erebia nivalis | Erebia oeme | Erebia orientalis | Erebia ottomana | Erebia palarica | Erebia pandrose | Erebia pharte | Erebia pluto | Erebia rhodopensis | Erebia rondoui | Erebia scipio | Erebia sthennyo | Erebia stirius | Erebia styx | Erebia sudetica | Erebia triaria | Erebia tyndarus | Erebia zapateri