Nebula tophaceata ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)

Nebula tophaceata: Adult (e.l. Valais, Switzerland, 2009) [S] Nebula tophaceata: Half-grown larva (Valais, Switzerland) [M] Nebula tophaceata: Larva (Valais, Switzerland, April 2009) [M] Nebula tophaceata: Larva (Valais, Switzerland) [M] Nebula tophaceata: Pupa [S] Nebula tophaceata: Habitat in the Swiss Valais (larval records in April 2009) [N]

Host plants:
The caterpillar feeds on Galium and probably also Asperula species. I found them in the Valais on Galium lucidum.

Nebula tophaceata inhabits rocky slopes, cliffs and similar places.

Life cycle:
The caterpillar overwinters in various instars from L2 to mature in the pupation shelter. I found it in mid-April feeding fully-grown in 1000m above sea level and in late May still quite small. The moths fly from mid-May to early September. According to literature, there is a partial second generation at lower altitudes, which should be further explored, however.

Endangerment: endangered

Endangerment factors:
Nebula tophaceata is endangered at lower elevations by succession, improper maintenance, destruction of habitat and climbing. In the Alps, it is less threatened (locally through reforestation, mass tourism and its increasing infrastructural growths).

Nebula tophaceata occurs locally from the Pyrenees across some Central and Southern European mountains: Alps, Massif Central, Black Forest, Jura, Bavarian Forest, eastern and south Eastern Europe, etc.

Nebula salicata