Hypena palpalis (Hübner, 1796)

Hypena palpalis: Adult (e.l. Samos 2009) [S] Hypena palpalis: Adult (e.l. Samos 2009) [S] Hypena palpalis: Adult (Samos) [S] Hypena palpalis: Adult (Olympian Riviera, e.l. May 2010) [S] Hypena palpalis: Half-grown larva (Samos) [N] Hypena palpalis: Larva (Olympian Riviera, Northern Greece, south of Leptokarya, May 2011) [N] Hypena palpalis: Larva (Samos) [M] Hypena palpalis: Larva (Samos, May 2009) [M] Hypena palpalis: Larva (Olympian Riviera, Greece, May 2010) [M] Hypena palpalis: Pupa [S] Hypena palpalis: Larvae in the habitat (Samos) [N] Hypena palpalis: Larval habitat in Samos in early May 2009 [N]

Host plants:
I found the caterpillars both in Samos (May 2009) and on the Olympic Riviera (end May 2010) on Parietaria (pellitory).

Hypena palpalis colonizes Parietaria stocks in humid or at least not too dry, often more shaded places of the coast to at least medium high mountains. In Samos I found larvae on shady sides of rocks on the coast and a shady rock base in an olive grove. At the Olympic Riviera a densely inhabited area was situated in a shady, moist staircase path on a steep coastline.

Life cycle:
Hypena palpalis usually has two generations per year. According to literature the adults hibernate and fly from August to November and from March to early June. The caterpillars live then from April to late June and result in moths from June to August. The summer caterpillars are likely to be found from July to September and then produce the overwintering adults. Perhaps even single summer moths overwinter or there is also a (partial) third generation. The caterpillars live also during the day on the host plant (possibly slightly withdrawn towards base) and can be tapped. It was always found commonly on the sites.

Endangerment factors:
Hypena palpalis should not be heavily threatened. In coastal areas, however, it will be deprived of many habitats by tourism. In olive orchards and elsewhere, herbicides destroy host plants.

Hypena palpalis is locally present in the Mediterranean area: South of France, Corsica, Sardinia, southern and Central Italy, locally in the southern Balkans (as in Greece), Turkey, eastern Aegean islands (Samos, etc.). In addition, Hypena palpalis is found in Armenia and the Near and Middle East (to Iran).

Hypena crassalis | Hypena lividalis | Hypena munitalis | Hypena obesalis | Hypena obsitalis | Hypena proboscidalis | Hypena rostralis 
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